Blog 7 // Traces the dramatist left behind

At first, the art work appears as it is. A second look reveals there is something odd. A muteness, stillness and absence starts filling the room. The art work has demands. The visitor the potential to mental activation. On the occasion of the retrospective exhibition Peter Friedl: Report 1964–2022 at KW Institute for Contemporary Art in Berlin, Hilde Van Gelder’s text Intermediality for the Sake of Radical Neutrality, in the work of Peter Friedl (2013) was re-published under the name of “An Act of Radical Neutrality” (2022). In this writing Ellen Van Driessche used a selection of parts from that text as focus points to reflect on his recent work Teatro (Report) (2016-2019).

Peter Friedl @ carré d’art, nimes, 2019

Peter Friedl, Teatro (Report), 2016-2019. © Mousse Magazine

About this creative mechanism of meaning production, Friedl has claimed that the discrepancy between the “concept” and the “realization” of a work of art is central to his research.  There is always a gap between the intended and the produced meaning of an artwork. But precisely that is a fascinating void. It is in the transitory, fragile space where the work of art produces its own meaning that new political insights, new philosophies, new ways of living together can be imagined. Critical intimacy between the work and the spectator, he argues, is a central triggering factor for the genesis of such a meaningful, reflexive image in the spectator’s cognitive imagination.

(This citation is an excerpt from Hilde Van Gelder,”An Act of Radical Neutrality,” in On Peter Friedl, ed. by Krist Gruijthuijsen, ex. cat., “Peter Friedl: Report 1964–2022” KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther und Franz König, 2022): 188-189.)

In his work Teatro (Report) (2016-2018) Peter Friedl recreated a seemingly exact mimesis on a smaller scale of the National Theatre in Athens, Greece, where his other work Report was recorded in 2016. However, the supposed mimesis is quickly broken by the people represented on stage who are slightly too big in comparison. On top of that, the model lacks a stand for the public.[1] The muteness, immobility and imperfectness of this scale model start asking something from the audience. It is but just a representation. The underlying concept of theatre as mnemotechnical systems or places of knowledge as defined by Giulio Camillo (ca. 1475-1544) and Robert Fludd (1574-1637) that Friedl uses, would suppose the stand as the most important part. The visitor of such a theatre stands on stage, looks at the stand which asks of him mental activation and causes a distortion of memory. It offers the possibility to undermine conventions around memory processes and create new meanings.[2] This part is not just missing in this work, Friedl seems to have made the exhibition hall the stand. Because of that, a blurring of the lines between audience and “stage” occurs. The lack, or better, replacement, of a stand here produces a free circulation of visitors and knowledge throughout the whole exhibition.[3]

This work can be observed both as a practical model or an aesthetic object. Moreover, although you can access the model from all sides and take on different positions as for example audience, actor or model builder, there is no interaction, movement or placement. It causes the visitor to activate their mental processes of imagination, interpretation and knowledge production.[4] Decontextualization, which Friedl uses as an artistic strategy, neutralizes any context brought in by him as an idiosyncratic collection through his simultaneous position in time and space.[5] This active mechanism is what I called theatre as museum based on what Friedl said in an interview with Claire Tancons; “I even like theatre as museum.”[6] Continuously, the audience can re-imagine, re-interpret and re-reproduce new meanings. This happens within “the gap between the intended and the produced meaning of an artwork” or that “fascinating void” Van Gelder writes about.[7] This void cannot be mistaken for being merely the silence present in the halls that Friedl uses as part of his decontextualization strategy. However, sound can and does play a role within that void. When walking through the exhibition one could hear the sound of the work Report from far away, touching and waving itself through the other artworks.

How Theory of Justice’s radically neutral presentation of photographs brings about this ethical call for human responsibility is a matter of artistic methodology. At all times, the totality of Friedl’s artistic production should be kept in mind when looking at a single work or reading a single text. Allan Sekula has called this “a larger montage principle” that is always operative within his entire body of work as well, and which exceeds any montage principle internal to a single work, or even one of his books. As with Sekula, an attentive observer of Friedl’s works can allow that larger montage to emerge within their imagination. Thus, spectators can understand his radically neutral approach as one marked by the greatest possible, egalitarian social engagement that art can take. (Van Gelder, 2022: 202-203)

At this point, the “larger montage principle” that Hilde Van Gelder writes about comes into play. When considering work by Friedl one should take into account his whole body of work.[8] Taken into account, Teatro (Report) reaches much further than itself. For that particular exhibition called Teatro (2019-2020), where this work was presented, the museum worked as a memory theatre in which the hierarchical division between audience and stage was blurred. The absence of labels or information boards created a continuous stream of images within a certain thinking space.[9] Visitors were put on stage of this mnemotechnical theatre or museum as theater for which in some cases the museum almost literally took on the role of theatre space.[10] An example of this can be found in the work No Prey, No Pay (2018-2019). Some circus pedestals with costumes and a Jolly Roger flag are found whereby the museum took on the role of circus and silence and absence that of audience and performance.

Like in the previous work, a certain muteness, stillness and absence rules through the exhibition halls. Look at for example the still standing radically mute fabricated dolls in The Dramatist (Black Hamlet, Crazy Henry, Giulia, Toussaint) (2013) or the motionless “baraccas” and character dolls in the work Teatro Popular (2016-2017). While wandering visitors are confronted with different decontextualised concepts and ideas through time and space ready for continuous re-interpretation. The use of the museum as a means to decontextualize is essential for Friedl’s practice in that it creates distance and “verfremdung” in the sense of Brechtian theatre. In its turn this causes a necessary critical intimacy between visitor and artwork.[11] As Van Gelder writes “Critical intimacy between the work and the spectator, he argues, is a central triggering factor for the genesis of such a meaningful, reflexive image in the spectator’s cognitive imagination”.[12]

Important is that the present stillness doesn’t cause passivity as the works demand mental activation from the visitors. Thus, a will to activate permeated the rooms.[13] The visitors walking through the exhibition, found themselves within that “fascinating void” characterized by a critical intimacy and an urge towards activation of mental processes.[14] For Friedl, the exhibition functions a medium “where art spins its own web”.[15] This could be interpreted as the art works having the power to demand activation in combination with the continuous re-imagination and re-interpretation the activated visitors cause. The reflexive images that arise on the visitor’s wandering through the exhibition halls live on long after the visit and influence mental processes of memory and creation of meaning.[16] Visitors become the active performers of their own memory and thinking processes by taking on the roles of audience, actor and possible dramatist.[17] The audience thus counts as a possible or potential activator of the radical neutral and mute traces that the dramatist left behind.[18]

[1] Ellen Van Driessche, Theater als museum en museum als theater, bachelor paper (KU Leuven), 12.

[2] Ibid., 13.

[3] Ibid., 14.

[4] Ibid., 14.

[5] Ibid., 28.

[6] Claire Tancons, “Portrait of the Artist as a Dramatist: A Conversation with Peter Friedl,” e-flux journal No 103 (2019), laatste toegang 5 mei 2020,; In my bachelor’s thesis I theorized this principle and applied it to the discussed works. Van Driessche, Theater als museum en museum als theater, 2.

[7] Hilde Van Gelder,”An Act of Radical Neutrality,” in On Peter Friedl, ed. by Krist Gruijthuijsen, ex. cat., “Peter Friedl: Report 1964–2022” KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther und Franz König, 2022): 188-189.

[8] Ibid., 202-203.

[9] Van Driessche, Theater als museum, 26.

[10] Ibid., 26.

[11] Ibid., 9.

[12] Van Gelder, An Act of Radical Neutrality,” 188-189.

[13] Ibid., 26.

[14] Van Gelder, “An Act of Radical Neutrality,”188-189.

[15] Van Gelder, “Intermediality for the sake of radical neutrality,” 192.

[16] Van Driessche, Theater als museum, 28.

[17] Van Driessche, museum als theater en theater als museum, 26.

[18] Ibid., 29.

Blog 6 // Ithaka arts festival

Since 1993 the Ithaka arts festival has taken place in Leuven every year, but this edition was different from the others. For the 29th edition the expo, co-organized by LGC-intern Celien Govaerts (CG), was divided into two sections. Visitors could enjoy the work of 19 promising artists both online and in the open air. The online expo “Ithaka”, which you can still visit, offers a virtual 360° tour through Keizersberg Abbey where the work of 9 artists was exhibited. In addition, the “Odyssee” walking tour took you along the work of 10 artists accompanied by an audio guide. This trajectory included the work Anesthesie (2021) by LGC-fellow Clara Wouters (CW). In order to gain further insight into both the organisational and the artist’s side of such an arts festival, LGC-intern Ellen Van Driessche (EVD) asked them some questions.

Photo by Michiel Lemmens of Anesthesie (2021) by Clara Wouters on display at Convento.

EVD: Despite the current situation in which we find ourselves, LOKO, the student umbrella organisation in Leuven, managed to create a worthy alternative to the annual arts festival Ithaka. How did you experience this ‘odyssey’ as an organiser, Celien?

CG: A first difficulty was finding a suitable location, since there are fewer and fewer empty premises in Leuven that we did not already use as a venue. So we started early with this. The Keizersberg Abbey eventually became the location, where the online expo “Ithaka” would take place, but took a big bite out of the budget because of the rent. This will also become increasingly difficult for other organisations. The second part was an open-air exhibition entitled “Odyssee”, which was set up at locations where no rent was required, which helped to balance the budget. In the future, exhibiting at shops, bars and restaurants may therefore be a good alternative.

A second difficulty was the communication with many parties simultaneously for the organisation of the “Odyssee”. In addition, the fact that the exhibition also had to be suitable for families, given the coincidence factor, caused certain restrictions regarding the content of the exhibited works. We had thought of this beforehand, but certain works turned out not to fit in the chosen shop, or to be too sexual or too political. As a result, we moved a work to the online exhibition, for example.

During LOKO’s elections for the position of culture, one of the questions I was asked was “How are you going to involve as many people as possible in Ithaka?”. As an art historian, I don’t think everyone has something to do with art, and this should not necessarily be the case, because then you run the risk of detracting from the quality of the expo. Of course, you do want to show the works to a lot of people, so you have to find a balance, which I think we found this year. People often become visitors or spectators at the “Odyssee” by chance, which contributes to this. In previous editions, many peripheral activities were organised to involve people.

EVD: This year’s expo consists of two parts, an online expo called “Ithaka” and an open-air expo/walk called “Odyssee”. The latter takes the visitor to local shops, coffee bars or even pharmacies where works of art are displayed in the showcase. In this way, this edition seems to hark back to the origins of Ithaka, where the exhibition was also spread over various locations in the city. Was this a conscious choice?

CG: When I filled in the application for the subsidy of the Flemish government, I had to indicate the history, so I did indeed notice this. Ithaka has been an art route for quite a few years. Last semester it became clear several times that events would either have to continue online or be cancelled. This was a disappointment each time and certainly when many volunteers were involved. The idea started to grow to go in a different direction with this edition. So it is indeed, by a coincidence, inspired by the older editions of Ithaka.

Installation photo by Michiel Lemmens of Annelotte Lammertse’s work in the showcase of fabrics shop Pauli.

EVD: The online exhibition “Ithaka” at Keizersberg Abbey starts where the open-air exhibition “Odyssee” ends. How do you see this online continuation of the expo within the whole? How do you see the interaction between the fact that the art is inside and the visitor outside? The spaces where the art is exhibited are not all accessible, or more difficult to enter than in normal situations, and the works are exhibited behind a showcase or online.

CG: The story is indeed that you make the walk and then end up at the location of “Ithaka”, which you then visit online. The construction of the online expo was also an interesting element as it was there for a week, but no visitors saw it. This in itself was a new and experimental experience for us as organisers, but also for the artists.

When we were building the expo, the measures for students forbade a physical expo in one location because we are not a museum or a cultural institution. Because so much is already happening online, even though we are used to it, we felt that there should also be a physical element to this edition. With regard to the question of the accessibility of the expo, I think that people mainly felt safe this way. Besides, people have been going for walks a lot during the last year anyway. I often do the set-up route myself, so it was certainly nice to discover new things that you don’t consciously pay attention to. For example, the Klein Begijnhof looked like a small museum to me because there was art in the windows both on your left and right side. In short, everything was quite experimental.

Installation photo by Michiel Lemmens of Fee Veraghtert’s work on the windows of the houses in the Klein Begijnhof.

EVD: For some of the works in the open-air exhibition the link between the work of art and the location is very clear. For example, Annelotte Lammertse’s work, in which she works with fabrics, is exhibited at Pauli, a fabric shop. The same seems to apply to Eva Maria Bouillon’s work exhibited at the De Zeven Hoeken pharmacy, in which she deals with her grandmother’s germophobia. The works are very clean in both form and content and when you enter the farmacy you encounter a “clean” space which causes a continuation of the work. How did you match the artists with the place where they were exhibited?

CG: We certainly tried to find a good match. Fascinating here was that for some artists both the location and the work often changed and the match between location and work was in some cases rather coincidental. Sometimes you just need good windows. I am glad that the photography was at the “Odyssee”, because it did not come across so well online.

Installation photo by Michiel Lemmens of Eva Maria Bouillon’s work in the windows of De Zeven Hoeken farmacy.

EVD: Because you can enter certain locations where the works are exhibited, you can also look behind the work of art. As an art historian, I enjoyed experiencing the interaction between the art, the visitor and the shop staff with whom you sometimes start a conversation about the works. How do you see this interaction, Celien as an organizer and Clara as an artist?

CG: It’s definitely nice for the owners to see art in their window, even though there were a few art walks going on at the time. Especially for the artists, who were free in their communication with the traders, this is interesting.

CW: I don’t think it made much difference to the passer-by which display case the works were in. What I really like is that I was allowed to exhibit at the physical exhibition and not online. I myself, am very happy with the contact with the owners of Convento. They even suggested to leave the pictures up because they are not allowed to open yet.

CG: The owner of Animaux Speciaux told me that his neighbours often let him know that a lot of people were looking at the works in his showcase. Especially in these times, this is nice attention for cafés and other businesses that are closed.

EVD: The people who walk through the city sometimes unwittingly become visitors of the expo. How do you see that factor?

CG: When we were discussing this edition of Ithaka, it already came up as an interesting effect. For example, more people came for the Anatomical Theatre itself, which was the starting point of the “Odyssee”, than for the exhibited work because the monument is not often open. But I don’t think this is negative. I think it has been good for Ithaka to have done something different this year, which certainly contributes to opening up the event.

Installation photo by Michiel Lemmens of Anesthesie (2021) by Clara Wouters at Convento

EVD: Clara, in the artist talk about your work Anesthesie you tell that it originated in the first lockdown where there was overwhelming media attention for Covid-19. How did you experience the influence of the past year on your work?

CW: The second lockdown took place in the middle of my second year of photography at Sint-Lukas in Brussels. As a student, you are very dependent on the material that they provide to work or experiment with. Because of this, there was a shift from an analogue to a digital focus in my work. I didn’t think of myself as a digital person, but the end result of Anesthesie is all digital post-production. Moreover, for my bachelor paper I am now only working with screen videos and internet-inspired topics. I see that shift with many of my fellow students as well.

CG: Do you regret this?

CW: I don’t know. It is definitely a pity that the threshold for borrowing material at school has become very high. When I graduate in June that possibility will disappear and it is regrettable that I have not been able to try everything. On the other hand, it has certainly opened up interesting avenues for me, as I might never have worked with Internet art otherwise. I had to get out of my comfort zone.

EVD: How important are initiatives such as Ithaka arts festival for young artists?

CW: It is very difficult to make a career right away. So these low-threshold initiatives are ideal. As a student, you try to participate in as many things as possible and you hope that the curators find your work interesting. This sometimes doesn’t correspond to how the lecturers at my school view it, which can at times be funny.

EVD: Artist and LGC-fellow Joeri Verbesselt talks in his article Kannibalistisch Kabaal. Een wansmakelijk recept voor artistieke benadering en kladderij [Cannibalistic Rumble. An unsavoury recipe for artistic approach and a fine mess] about the excess of information and how he wants to take it all in and process it, partly willingly, partly obliged. He discusses his method of digestion, ingestion and egestion whereby he takes in the input, processes it and excretes it back in a fruitful form. You are also trying to deal with the enormous amounts of stimuli that we receive daily through the media. Can you identify with this?

CW: What Verbesselt discusses is very recognisable. He also says it in a very poetic and beautiful way. The fact that he uses these terms is also very coincidental, as the original title of Anesthesie was “indigestion” before,  and the original concept was the inability to digest the overwhelming amount of information. As I thought about how to work out this idea, the concept of a magazine-inspired booklet containing a crescendo of filters came up from which Anesthesie was born.

EVD: What does your method consist of? Can you elaborate on the filters?

CW: The search for the filters took a long time, about a year. In the beginning I read a lot of newspapers and cut out articles thinking that I had to do something with this because I was stuck in the pile of information. Originally I made collages and started to interpret things differently. For me this worked as a process of “digestion”. For others, the images came across more intensely because of the condensed information on one sheet of paper. In the collages, my own ideas are very much incorporated, which is less interesting for the viewer. Nevertheless, there are still a few in the booklet. After a long search, I decided to take the filters literally as a concept, so that the interpretation of the images could be broader. It is interesting for me to see how people manage to give a completely different interpretation.

For the application of the filters, I first worked manually, but later decided to combine it with digital layers. So first I scan everything and then edit it in Photoshop. The intensity of the filter also depends on how difficult I find that subject or image to process. As the book progresses, the images are deconstructed more and more as the last pages consist of the most traumatic images of the past year.

Photo by Michiel Lemmens of Anesthesie (2021) by Clara Wouters on display at Convento.

EVD: Could the display case or the closed nature of Convento be an extra filter? In the window the outside space is reflected, so it offers a kind of reduced visibility.

CW: That is indeed an interesting perspective. Other people have different thoughts and get those things out of it. I like that.

EVD: One of the pages shows refugees in a boat on a turbulent sea whose faces have been made unrecognisable. Are there certain subjects that you apply certain filters to, or deal with in a specific way?

CW: In the photo of the refugees, their faces are very clear, so I made them unrecognisable. In my opinion, it is absurd that we do not do this in view of their privacy. They are in mortal fear, which affects us, and this is one of the addictions. I am very much inspired by Susan Sontag’s book Regarding the Pain of Others (2003). Martha Rosler is also an inspiration. Through them two comes my love-hate relationship with photography. After all, don’t we become addicted to looking at bad news? I often think about that. It is all in the image.

Clara Wouters, Anesthesie, 2021.

Then, as you browse further, the photos become more and more unrecognisable. The last ones are almost completely unrecognisable and these are photos that have gone around the world of, for example, police violence or racist incidents that have traumatised many people. I find it strange that we continue to share them. That is why I filter them as hard as I can. If you leaf through the booklet, you get pain shots and the further you leaf through, the more you take painkillers.

EVD: In your work, both the quantity and the shock level of certain pictures and information play a role. Do you want to anticipate the anaesthesia that may occur when we see so many images? Are you a kind of anaesthetist who protects against the pain that occurs when we want to absorb the overload of stimuli through the media?

CW: I don’t see myself as an anaesthetist, because then it can come across as if I can solve it all or that I know it all. I had a lot of trouble with this at the beginning of my photography training. I first studied art history and had written about the crisis within photography in my bachelor paper and thesis. My first project for example, was about a befriended refugee family that I tried to visualise in different ways to avoid the one-sidedness. In hindsight, I was the one who just went home while they are still in their transition phase without the things I have. Theoretically, I knew exactly what I didn’t want to do, which blocked me in my practice. I only let go this year that I want to make art that is good for everyone. Anesthesie is a taste of a more digital way with an ironic touch of trying to keep that perfectionism in check. I think it should be very relatable.

EVD: You graduated as an art major and are now finishing up your photography bachelor’s degree. Is this interaction between theory and practice reflected in your work?

CW: I had been working with art and its criticism for 4 years, so I knew what I didn’t want to do. Without having that background, I would not be able to make meaningful works. I think it reinforces each other. For example, I wrote my thesis while I was already studying at Sint-Lukas, so there was a reciprocal effect. I certainly don’t want to have a negligent view of the whole history of photography. I think there should be something that deals with the two together. I still don’t feel like I know enough to get started. One of my examples is Hito Steyerl who also does research in art history and photography. I personally find it less interesting when this is missing.

For those who missed this edition of Ithaka and want to see the work Anesthesie by Clara Wouters can visit the Antwerp Art Weekend where it will be on display at De Studio.

Ellen Van Driessche is currently completing her MA in art history at KU Leuven focussing on contemporary art. For her thesis she researches alter ego’s and persona’s in the work of women artists. As part of the master’s programme, she is doing an internship at the Lieven Gevaert Centre.

Celien Govaerts is currently pursuing her MA in art history and social and cultural anthropology. After working with tourist posters for the Belgian Congo for her bachelor paper, she wants to dive deeper into colonial history and memory in contemporary art during the following years. Her internship at the Lieven Gevaert Centre investigates the role of art criticism today.

Clara Wouters recently completed her master in art history by doing research on artists who criticise photojournalism in their work. Currently she is completing her bachelor’s degree in photography at the LUCA School of Arts Brussels. Through her artistic projects she wants to highlight pending social and political problems such as the refugee crisis, the image overload and the textile industry. She created a website where you can see her work.

Blog 5 // retreat – Artist Conversation with Joeri Verbesselt

“If we want change, then I believe that the ‘usual’ pictures around us do not suffice: images of violence breed violence; films focused on one desiring protagonist breed ego-centrism. Regarding protests, resistance, uprisings, … I want to propose an alternative audio-visual vocabulary which might function as fertile ground to envision another future.” (Joeri Verbesselt)

A wise retreat to regain strength, devise new strategies or negotiate is what Joeri Verbesselt proposes in his work retreat (2020). For the representative challenge posed by such an issue, he offers us, as he calls it, a new audio-visual vocabulary. Through the processing of amateur and staged protest images, a violent post-apocalyptic world emerges in which a non-violent encounter takes place between the riot police and an underground army, which expresses its protest in dance. The work was selected for the Copenhagen-based CPH:DOX film festival and found its expression in the recently published short story The Withdrawal. Professor Hilde Van Gelder and LGC-intern Ellen Van Driessche asked the artist some questions to gain more insight in retreat.

Hilde Van Gelder (HVG): Joeri, retreat is your graduation work in the Master of Film at the LUCA School of Arts (Brussels). Afterwards, you further refined the film until it was completed earlier this year. So, it took a few years before you came out with it?

Joeri Verbesselt (JV): Yes, that is right. For many young artists, the period after graduation is a kind of black hole, when you must try to take the step towards the creation of artistic work, preferably with remuneration or financial compensation. That period is quite hard: there are not many opportunities and there is a lot of competition. On top of that, several of those first opportunities are unpaid and only give your work visibility on a small, local scale. That is why, as an artist, in my case as a filmmaker, there is a lot at stake with the graduation work.

retreat was originally conceived as a short fiction film with a script that was almost completely thrown overboard in the production phase of the film. During the production we mainly filmed with performers and dancers at different locations in Brussels. I also needed a lot of found footage: contemporary films of protests made by amateurs. For this I did research on YouTube. That research first focused on protests at different times and locations around the world. As the editing progressed, I began to search for specific elements within those protests, such as tear gas or policemen in a wooded environment.

Joeri Verbesselt, retreat, film still, 2020.  © Joeri Verbesselt

During the editing, the challenge was to digest the quantity and diversity of material – images shot with professional equipment and staff versus amateur films with sometimes low pixel qualities or ‘shockiness’. This digestion is done by looking at the material, putting clips next to each other, placing sounds, etc. For me, there are no classic editing rules; I only allow myself to be guided by my intuition. I try things out and feel if it works. I will look at and adjust these small editing sketches repeatedly. For retreat this was a slow and intensive process, spread over almost three years (with rest periods of a few months).

Ellen Van Driessche (EVD): You recently wrote the article Kannibalistisch kabaal. Een wansmakelijk recept voor artistieke benadering en kladderij [Cannibalistic Rumble. An unsavoury recipe for artistic approach and a fine mess] for Forum+ in which you reflect on the position of the artist in contemporary (popular) culture. How does this approach of ingestion, digestion and egestion appear in the working process of retreat?

JV: In a first phase of ingestion in my work process I try to include as much input as possible as a sponge. I have read books and looked at images around protest and contemporary ecological issues and theories. This inevitably includes popular culture and media: films like James Cameron’s Avatar (2009) or the way protests are framed on television and social media.

In a second phase all those texts and images start to crawl together. The second phase, digestion, is the most subconscious and intuitive phase. I start playing with the source material on a kind of workboard: scratching, making notes, marking key words, scratching things through or adding notes. What resonates in me? What do I feel intense passion for or anger against? What do I want to change, delete, lighten up? In this way a digestion process takes place in which I process the source material from the first ingestive phase. In this way I came closer and closer to the essence of what I wanted to say: withdrawal as a kind of intuitive force of nature, an indestructible longing.

Joeri Verbesselt, Cannibalistic Rumble: Violence, Ecology, Coloniality, Resistance, Retreat, 2017.  © Joeri Verbesselt

As an artist you must present your own creation with your vision at the last, egestive phase in which you present a personally finished product to an external audience. The processed source material is then barely present on the surface, but only detectable during a kind of forensic analysis. This conversation is a kind of analysis in which those traces become visible again.

HVG: In what way has Iconology, as reintroduced by W.J.T. Mitchell in the 1980s, now recently called Image Science by him, been of decisive importance for the genesis of retreat?

JV: I cannot imagine that I could have made the film if I had not first completed my studies in Art History. I first encountered contemporary Iconology during your Iconology classes in 2014. Because of my fascination with contemporary images and image theory, these lessons have had a fundamental influence on my thinking. I cannot start working on a film now without thinking about what images are already circulating on that subject.

During retreat my “Iconologist persona” was initially only present implicitly. During the research I wondered how (ecological) protests were shown and what that meant. The image is never just an image, it influences how we look. After all, certain rhetoric and narratives are always embedded in images (even when it is only metaphorical through word choice). And what do all these images mean? My preliminary research was about this: how to avoid all those pitfalls, away from violent protests and away from Western models of looking that seemed impotent to me regarding depicting a future.

HVG: Do you see any other ways in which retreat connects to W.J.T. Mitchell’s Metapictures project?

JV: Following on from the above elements of intuition and assemblage, for me retreat is primarily conceived as a dialectical image. The concept of retreat was really an ‘aha’ moment for me, after which a whole new horizon opened for future imagination. The retreat can be a pivotal moment for other ways of dealing with violence and ecological issues. And at the same time – and this is what I think is the strongest about the concept – it leaves all possibilities open. Withdrawal exudes potential. It opens possibilities without explicitly suggesting one. This is what I wanted to evoke in the film.

Secondly, retreat of course links back to “What Do Pictures Want”. I really see retreat as an idea, experience, feeling that you are being whispered in and that can inspire you. The title is conceived as a verb: retreat. I was hoping it could become a kind of phrase that would keep repeating itself in the viewer’s head, like a kind of infectious melody. And that it would then begin to live its own life.

Finally, thirdly, for me retreat is a “metapicture” because in the film there is a reflection nestled on images of protests on the one hand and images of ecological problems on the other. It is about how we look at these two types of images. retreat wants to propose an explicitly different way of looking at both and is therefore linked to Mitchell’s cloud “Picturing Vision“. In comparison to Romantic paintings, for example, we do not look at the landscape in the film through a painted character from a distance, but dive right into it. And when I reproduce certain ways of looking, for example the amateur images of the protests, the Earth from space, or frontal police officers, these images are manipulated in such a way that the original viewing experience disappears and the images are viewed and experienced in a new way.

Joeri Verbesselt, retreat, film still, 2020.  © Joeri Verbesselt

EVD: The dancers in retreat seem to find a kind of collective power in their movements and have a strong connection with the earth and the nature around them. As the intensity increases, they seem to be almost possessed by forces of nature, but violence is absent. What is the role of dance and movement in retreat? What role could it play in connecting with each other and with nature?

Joeri Verbesselt, retreat, film still, 2020.  © Joeri Verbesselt

JV: I myself, have participated as an activist in numerous protests and climate actions. What has struck me most is not the violence. Despite the fear and sometimes very harsh conditions, a strong, almost euphoric sense of collective connection prevailed because we were intensely committed to a cause we thought was worth pursuing. That feeling came to me as a kind of exhilarating drug, a trance, but better and with more interesting after-effects.

During my research in preparation of the film I visited the exhibition Soulèvements by curator and art historian Georges Didi-Huberman at Jeu de Paume in Paris. Thanks to the intelligently constructed discourse of the exhibition, the visitor comes to realize that protests as a force are analogous to raw forces of nature: riots like a raging storm, an uprising like a rising wave, a whirlwind of emotion, a burning passion, a volcanic explosive situation… This metaphorical interaction in our use of language between the rise of repressed emotions and forces of nature does not seem to me to be a coincidence. With an extreme emotion we can go into a trance, which literally means transition; a transition to an alternative consciousness, to another reality. Intense emotions and desires are powerful and potentially dangerous, but do not have to be violent.
With the dance and movement in the forest in retreat I intended to evoke such intense longing for a different reality away from the violence on the street and against nature, and for a close connection with each other and that same nature.

Joeri Verbesselt, Ende Gelände, 2016.  © Joeri Verbesselt

HVG: Can you situate retreat within your oeuvre?

JV: After graduating, in parallel with finishing retreat, I worked on two projects thanks to grants. The first project involved writing a scenario for a new experimental film with the working title Motherships. This film is an artistic offshoot of a reportage assignment about underprivileged mothers and children in Brussels. This film project raised important questions regarding participation and political representation, as well as my position as an artist. What can my role be within these issues? After in-depth research (immersion and literature) and writing the scenario in 2019, this project is on hold. The second project concerns performance (and dance) and focuses on Western art history under the working title Tableau Vivant in collaboration with the Taiwanese performers Wan Lun Yu and Mei-ning Huang (with both I already worked on retreat).

If you put the three projects mentioned above side by side, it seems inevitable to say that my work is inspired by violence. With retreat it’s about violence against activists and against ecosystems, with Motherships about structural violence that leads to deprivation and with Tableau Vivant about representative violence (what is proposed within the dominant paradigms of the visual arts and how). When you, as an artist, want to counter violence, you are always threatened with the pitfall of the Messianic position, the world’s improver, the moral enforcer. With retreat I absolutely wanted to avoid this moralizing position. After all, moralizing and judging is a violent form of communication.

EVD: How does the dystopian optimism you wrote about relate to retreat or “withdrawal” as a possible way out to change or to initiating possibilities?

JV: I thought that the concept of dystopian optimism enabled me to reconcile a critical deadlock in popular ecological thinking: on the one hand, apocalyptic doom-mongering and, on the other, unbridled technological optimism that disregards the social and physical limits of the earth. With this concept, I am arguing that we already live in a society with dystopian characteristics, but that we must actively counter this dystopia with an optimistic belief that things can be done differently, with care for ourselves and the environment. With dystopian optimism, I want to maintain a tension between fear and hope, self-preservation and action, reality and fiction, society and individuals. Optimism cannot be separated from dystopia (limitless technological optimism), nor dystopia from optimism (misanthropy).

In this sense, retreat could be conceived as a dystopian optimistic strategy. Ecological activists are in a state of war with dystopian powers, and humanity, if you follow the Gaia hypothesis, is at war with Earth. According to the inventor of the Gaia hypothesis, biochemist James Lovelock (together with microbiologist Lynn Margulis), man is well on his way to losing that war. That’s why he pleads for a lasting retreat, an opening to new possibilities, on the way to a healthier relationship between man and his environment.

Joeri Verbesselt, retreat, film still, 2020.  © Joeri Verbesselt

Today I am not so convinced of the value of the theoretical concept of dystopian optimism anymore, and that has everything to do with my current research stay in Taiwan. To what extent do I fall into the trap of Western framing for a problem that reaches far beyond the West, and may even have been caused by it? To what extent is such theoretical framing problematic, a form of neo-colonialism? For the time being, I would like to replace dystopian optimism with a more concrete and poetic alternative, a quote from The Parable of the Sower (1993) by the Afro-American science fiction writer Octavia E. Butler: “The world is full of painful stories. Sometimes it seems as though there aren’t any other kind and yet I found myself thinking how beautiful that glint of water was through the trees.”


Ellen Van Driessche (°1998) is an intern at Lieven Gevaert Centre and is currently completing a master’s degree in Art History at KU Leuven focussing on contemporary art. She writes her thesis on the work of Carey Young, more specifically the presence of bodies or identities as fluid constructions, ready-mades or participants with a focus on gender and performativity.

Hilde Van Gelder (°1969) is director of the Lieven Gevaert Centre, and presently completing a book entitled Ground Sea. Photography and the Right to Be Reborn (Leuven University Press, 2021).

Joeri Verbesselt (°1990) investigates how to connect ecological activism with future imagination. His work can result in various forms: writings, films and performances. In the framework of his PhD in the arts on Dystopian Optimism, he is a part of the research groups Lieven Gevaert Centre and deep histories fragile memories.

Blog 4 // Countering visuality? Radio as a medium in artistic practices addressing the issue of political resistance. The examples of Katarzyna Krakowiak and Radio Earth Hold.

This post is part of the series ‘Thesis Highlights‘ in which recently graduated master students affiliated with LGC are invited to give a short insight into their research. This posting is by LGC researcher Marta Maria Wódz.

At first glance, radio may seem to be an example of dated technology, overturned by other, newer media. However, multiple artistic projects created during the last two decades seem to indicate the opposite: the upsurge of radio-related artworks or initiatives in both: grassroots artistic practices and projects carried out under the auspices of the biggest institutions (the examples from the Polish art-scene are Radio Kapitał [Capital] hosted by Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw or the series of audio programs Out Of Office as a part of Plac Małachowskiego 3 by Zachęta National Gallery of Art – both projects launched in summer 2019).

Why, out of all possible forms, do contemporary artists choose radio as a tool, medium or a way of presentation for a particular project? In what kind of context does it appear? To put it shortly, I was interested in radio in arts, rather than art in radio (radio art). For that reason I find useful the term transmission arts coined in the end of the 1990s by Wave Farm – a collective originating from New York which later developed into a bigger organization. By placing wireless transmission in the center of interest, it can broaden the notion of radio art and embrace a much wider spectrum of artistic practices not necessarily (or maybe even not at all?) happening inside a broadcasting studio, but including installations, live performances, etc.

In his manifesto The Radio of the Future, futurist Valimir Khlebnikov envisioned the transmissions of image and text alongside with sensations such as scents or flavors. In the first two chapters I have paid close attention to the history of radio, its use and social reception in its early stages also in relation to the development of science and technology: for example so-called ‘radio sense’ was a popular belief in the beginning of 20th century that some people can receive radio waves directly via their brains. Even if such ideas may now seem somewhat amusing, in the 1920s, described by Flora Lysen as the “early 20th century world of fuzzy boundaries between mind and media,” the existing imagery of over-encompassing, invisible oscillations which were already materialized in laboratories as epistemic things could render even surprisingly peculiar ideas as entirely plausible.

Radio artists, BPS, Jerusalem, between 1936 and 1946, Matson Photo Service, Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-matpc-14319, repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington D.C. 20540 USA.

In my thesis, I am especially interested in radio as a tool used in artistic projects addressing issues connected to the civil disobedience or resistance – its potentially emancipating capacity to transgress borders and physical, architectonic barriers, contrasted with its history as a powerful propaganda tool. What I find fascinating is this self-contradictory tension between radio as a fundamentally state-controlled medium with broadcasts aimed for particular countries separately and its intrinsic impossibility to fit into dimensions demarcated by the national borders. Can radio, especially when understood as prehistoric, all-encompassing, natural phenomenon, become a counter-force to visuality or a response to the pictorial turn described by W.J.T Mitchell?

Radio masts, Ramallah, between 1934 and 1939, photo taken by American Colony (Jerusalem), Photo Department, G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection, repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington.

Although throughout the course of the text I refer to many other artworks, as the core examples I have chosen the projects by Katarzyna Krakowiak and Radio Earth Hold because rather than presenting finished products, the solutions they introduce are opening up a wide mesh of further possibilities. They touch upon political topics in a way that can profoundly challenge our thinking and encourage to reexamine not only the role of radio, but also the transmission and communication in or via art – perhaps in this sense they can be understood as a form of countervisuality.

Radio Earth Hold, Source: © Rachel Dedman

Historically speaking, radio (understood as technology) has always been influenced by plenty of external factors such as weather and closely connected to the presence of the listener who can adjust the antenna to receive a better quality signal. But what happens when, as in case of Katarzyna Krakowiak’s works, these two become one and the artist both metaphorically and physically turns into a part of the device via which the signal is broadcasted? The analysis of her works The Human Antenna – Rozgłośnia Stocznia 94FM and Free Radio Jaffa constitutes the third chapter. By recreating the broadcasting station that used to operate in the Gdansk Shipyard, Krakowiak presented it as a tool of communication on the local level and has put forward the community-building or maybe even identity-building quality of radio. Her artistic strategies are based on hijacking or (as the artist herself calls it) borrowing radio frequencies to create space for the messages that often remain unheard. Especially in relation to the colonial history of radio in Palestine, Krakowiak’s Free Radio Jaffa emphasizes the emancipatory potential of the medium.

Katarzyna Krakowiak, Human Antena – Rozgłośnia Stocznia 94FM, 2011. © Katarzyna Krakowiak
Katarzyna Krakowiak, free radio jaffa, in collaboration with Ronen Eidelman, Israeli Center for Digital Art (Holon), Jaffa 2009. © Katarzyna Krakowiak

The fourth, last chapter revolves around the topic of the radio voice with its potential to become authoritarian as well as to create an intimate experience of listening. Both of these aspects are rendered apparent in the works of Radio Earth Hold collective created by Rachel Dedman, Lorde Selys and Arjuna Neuman. Their broadcast REH#1: The Colonial Voice balances between curatorial and artistic practices; it presents the outcomes of their research but also offers a conceptualization of the link between the Palestinian and the Native American political struggles combined with the concept of sonic solidarity. Their approach hinges on the phenomenon of natural radio and the idea of acousmatic sound – a sound without recognizable source, the disembodied voice of authority, often compared to the omnipotent voice of God. This voice appears in Radio Earth Hold’s research on history of radio in Palestine, both as a tool used by the colonizer and as incorporated in resistance practices.

In my interview with Dedman, she has put forward a quality which was rendered ostensibly visible during the COVID-19 lockdown: the fact that radio can provide an alternative in response to the endless online activities eventually causing a “push-back reaction” or an answer for “a need for something more physically constructed.” Paradoxically, even if transmitted digitally, radio can create the feeling of presence that is more real or unmediated than other media. To describe this phenomenon, the choice of vocabulary becomes difficult – almost all the adjectives could be used between quotation marks since we know that digital radio is not really real, unmediated or materially present but it sells an illusion, as if it was. According to Dedman, radio “evades a sleek proliferation of the digital as a format of form.” In this case, I also understand ‘the digital’ as a category encompassing everything that gives an impression of being digital, rather than a strictly technical term. With its innate intimacy as if the voice was addressing the listener directly, radio can hide perfectly well the fact that it also functions in the digital space. Perhaps in this sense, the need for a more direct connection (in art, but not only) woken up by the pandemic circumstances, can in a longer run prepare the ground for the sonic turn to happen.

Supervisor at KU Leuven: prof. dr. Hilde Van Gelder, Art History
Supervisor at University of Warsaw: dr. hab. Marcin Lachowski, Institute of Art History
Tutor at University of Warsaw: dr. Łukasz Zaremba, Institute of Polish Culture